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Nuclear Physics & Particle Physics
Book ID SCS393
ISBN No. 978-81-8054-993-9
Book Name Nuclear Physics & Particle Physics
Book sub-title First Edition Reprint 2014
Author/s name/s : Prakash Satya
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Publisher Name Sultan Chand & Sons
Publishing Year 2014
Book Price (Printed) INR 400   
Book Price (Our Price) INR 400   
Book Size 16 x 24 cm.
Book Page xvi + 480
Book Weight 600 gms.


   Post Review
Book Summary

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I feel great pleasure in bringing out the present book Nuclear physics and Particle Physics for degree, honours and postgraduate students of all Indian Universities. To bring the standard in higher education, U.G.C. has introduced common syllabus for all Indian Universities. "Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics" is a complete paper at postgraduate level. The present book covers the complete syllabus and contains the matter according to latest trend.

The subject matter has been divided into 12 chapters. The prior nine chapters are devoted to nuclear physics ; the next chapter deals with nuclear instrumentations. This chapter gives the knowledge to accelerate and detect all types of particles. The last two chapters have been devoted to elementary particles and cosmic rays.

The subject matter has been discussed physically and mathematically in a systematic way starting from basic concepts, keeping in mind the actual difficulties of students.

After complete study of the book, the students will be prepared to solve all types of problems of nuclear physics. Only S.I. system of units has been used. Every topic has been explained in simple language by the help of necessary mathematical steps, diagrams and graphs. The explanation of even difficult topics has been given with clarify, without any confusion, giving details of experiments wherever necessary. A large number of problems have been solved at proper places.

At the end of each chapter a set of exercises is given; which contains short answer questions, long answer questions, numerical and the multiple choice questions.

Though nothing can be claimed as original; but I have written the book in my own style, so that the students may feel no difficulty in following the subject.

I hope that this book will be liked by my fellow professors and students as my other books. I am grateful to authors and publishers of various books consulted by me freely for preparing the manuscripts.

I am grateful to whole staff of M/s Sultan Chand and Sons for making efforts to bring the book in present form. I am specially thankful to Sri Rakesh Mohan for going through the proffs carefully.

Efforts have been made to make the book error free. But inspite of best efforts some misprints/omissions might have been crept in.

I shall in thankful to professors and students who point them out. The suggestions for further improvement of the book are cordially invited.

Special Features

  • Efforts have been made to make the treatment simple, lucid and rather comprehensive.
  • After each topic a sufficient number of solved examples have been added.
  • At the end of each chapter the selected set of “Questions and Problems” has been given.
Book Content

Chapter 1. General Properties of Atomic Nuclei

            1.1.      Introduction (1)

            1.2.      Electron (1)

            1.3.      Discovery of Nucleus : Scattering of a-particles (8)

            1.4.      Nuclear Constituents (17)

            1.5.      Nuclear Size (19)

            1.6.      Electron Scattering Experiment

            1.7.      Mirror Nuclei Method (23)

            1.8.      Muonic X-ray Method (25)

            1.9.      Isotopic Shift in Line Spectra (26)

            1.10.    Nuclear Mass (28)

            1.11.    Aston's Mass Spectrograph (28)

            1.12.    Bainbridge's Mass Spectrograph (31)

            1.13.    Dempster's Mass Spectrograph (32)

            1.14.    Double Focussing Mass Spectrometer (34)

            1.15.    Doublet Method of Mass-spectroscopy (37)

            1.16.    Mass Synchrometer (38)

            1.17.    Mass Defect and Packing Fraction (40)

            1.18.    Nuclear Binding Energy Curve and Stability of Nuclei (41)

            1.19.    Angular momentum of nucleus (43)

            1.20.    Nuclear Magnetic Dipole Moment (44)

            1.21.    Methods of Determination of Nuclear Magnetic Moment (46)

            1.22.    Electric Quadrupole Moment (51)

            1.23.    Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moment (53)

            1.24.    Determination of Quadrupole Moment (54)

            1.25.    Parity (57)

            1.26.    Symmetry and Statistics of Nuclei (58)

Exercises (59)

 

Chapter 2. Two Body Problem and Nuclear Forces

            2.1.      Introduction (64)

            2.2.      Deuteron (67

            2.3.      Simple Theory of Ground State of Deuteron (68)

            2.4.      Spin-Dependence of Nuclear Forces-Singlet and Triplet States in

                        Deuteron Ground State (75)

            2.5.      Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering : Basic Concepts (78)

            2.6.      Laboratory and centre of Mass Coordinate Systems (79)

            2.7.      Scattering Cross-Section (82)

            2.8.      Experimental Data on Low-Energy n-p Scattering (86)

            2.9.      Partial Wave Analysis of n-p Scattering (88)

            2.10.    Spin-dependence of Nuclear Forces (94)

            2.11.    Effective Range Theory (94)

            2.12.    Coherent Scattering of Slow Neutrons (99)

            2.13.    ProtonÑProton scattering below 10 MeV (104)

            2.14.    Non-central forces (Tensor Forces) (108)

            2.15.    Quadru pole moment of deuteron (109)

            2.16.    Magnetic Moment of Deuteron S and D-state Probabilities (111)

            2.17.    Saturation Character of Nuclear Forces Exchange Forces (113)

            2.18.    Iso-spin Formalism (115)

            2.19.    High energy NucleonÑNucleon Scattering (119)

            2.20.    Meson Theory of Nuclear Forces (123)

Exercises (126)

 

Chapter 3. Radioactivity

            3.1.      Introduction (131)

            3.2.      Becquerel Rays (132)

            3.3.      Properties of a, b and g-rays (133)

            3.4.      Rutherford and Soddy’s Theory of Radioactive Disintegration (136)

            3.5.      Average (or Mean) Life of a Radio Element (138)

            3.6.      Half-life Period (138)

            3.7.      Determination of Decay Constant (l) and half-life (T) (139)

            3.8.      Soddy’s Displacement Law (140)

            3.9.      Radioactive Branching (141)

            3.10.    Radioactive Transformations–Radioactive Series (142)

            3.11.     Law of Successive Disintegration and Radioactive

                         Equilibrium (145)

            3.12.      Radioactive Dating : Age of Minerals (150)

            3.13.      Radiocarbon Dating (152)

            3.14.      Isotope Production (152)

            3.15.      Units of Radioactivity and Radiation Dosage (153)

            3.16.      Artificial Transmutation : Discovery of Proton (161)

            3.17.      Discovery of Neutron (163)

            3.18.      Sources and Properties of Neutrons (164)

            3.19.      Classification, Detection and Uses of Neutrons (165)

            3.20.      Induced Radioactivity (166)

            3.21.      Transuranic Elements (168)

Exercises (172)

 

Chapter 4. Alpha Deccy

            4.1.      Introduction (176)

            4.2.      Determination of Energy of a-particles (176)

            4.3.      Alpha-ray Spectra and Nuclear Energy Levels (178)

            4.4.      Range of a-particles and Geiger Nuttall Law (181)

            4.5.      Long Range a-Particles (182)

            4.6.      Theory of emission of a-particles from Radioactive Nuclei (183)

            4.7.      Gamow’s Theory of a-Decay (186)

            4.8.      Few Important Historical Events in a-particle Studies (193)

            4.9.      Proton Radioactivity (193)

Exercises (194)

 

Chapter 5. Beta-Decay

            5.1.      Introduction (197)

            5.2.      Beta-decay Processes (198)

            5.3.      Measurement of b-ray Energies (199)

            5.4.      b-ray Spectra (199)

            5.5.      Explanation of Continuous Spectrum (206)

            5.6.      Energy Balance in b-decay (207)

            5.7.      Fermi Theory of Beta-Decay (209)

            5.8.      Life time of b-decay (216)

            5.9.      Selection Rules in b-decay (217)

            5.10.    Theory of Electron-Capture (221)

            5.11.    Parity Violation in b-decay (225)

            5.12.    Helicity (227)

Exercises (227)

 

Chapter 6. Gamma Transitions

            6.1.      Introduction (230)

            6.2.      Absorption of g-rays by Matter (230)

            6.3.      Absorption Cross-section (231)

            6.4.      Measurement of Gamma Ray Energies (239)

            6.5.      Multiple Order of g-Radiations (242)

            6.6.      Internal Conversion (246)

            6.7.      OR transitions. Internal Conversion within the Nuclear

                        Volume (248)

            6.8.      Internal Pair Creation (249)

            6.9.      Nuclear Isomers (249)

            6.10.    Angular Correlation in Gamma Emission (251)

            6.11.    Coulomb Excitation (254)

            6.12.    Nuclear Resonance Absorption (255)

            6.13.    M…ssbauer Effect (256)

Exercises (261)

 

Chapter 7. Nuclear Models

            7.1.      Introduction (265)

            7.2.      Fermi Gas Model (265)

            7.3.      Liquid Drop Model (267)

            7.4.      Semi-empirical Mass Formula (269)

            7.5.      Magic Numbers (273)

            7.6.      Nuclear Shell Model (274)

            7.7.      Nuclear Spin-Orbit Coupling – The Mayer-Jensen Shell Model (275)

            7.8.      Predictions of Nuclear Shell Model (278)

            7.9.      Collective Model (283)

            7.10.    The Nilsson Model (291)

            7.11.    Optical Model (293)

Exercises (294)

 

Chapter 8. Nuclear Reactions

            8.1.      Introduction (297)

            8.2.      Conservation Laws in Nuclear Reactions (298)

            8.3.      Some Famous Early Nuclear Reactions (300)

            8.4.      Reaction Energetics : Q-value (301)

            8.5.      Threshold Energy (303)

            8.6.      Nuclear Transmutation (303)

            8.7.      Nuclear Reaction Cross Section (309)

            8.8.      Radioactive Tracers (311)

            8.9.      Partial Wave Analysis of Reaction Cross-section (312)

            8.10.    Level Width (315)

            8.11.    Types of Nuclear Reactions (316)

            8.12.    Compound Nucleus Theory (317)

            8.13.    Resonance Scattering : Breit-Wigner Dispersion Formula (320)

            8.14.    Statistical theory of Nuclear Reactions (327)

            8.15.    Direct Reactions (329)

            8.16.    Theory of Stripping and Pick-up Reactions (330)

            8.17.    Stripping Reactions and the Shell Model (334)

Exercises (335)

 

Chapter 9. Nuclear Energy : Nuclear Fission and Fusion

            9.1.      Introduction (339)

            9.2.      Nuclear Fission (339)

            9.3.      Distribution of Mass of Fission Products (341)

            9.4.      Energy Released in Fission (342)

            9.5.      Distribution of Energy of Fragments (343)

            9.6.      Neutrons Released in Fission (344)

            9.7.      Prompt and Delayed Neutrons (346)

            9.8.      Spontaneous Fission (348)

            9.9.      Explanation of Nuclear Fission on the basis of Liquid Drop Model (350)

            9.10.    Bohr and Wheeler’s Theory of Nuclear Fission (351)

            9.11.    Nuclear Chain Reaction (355)

            9.12.    Four-factor Formula (357)

            9.13.    Nuclear Reactor (358)

            9.14.    Breeding of Fuel (360)

            9.15.    Classifications of Nuclear Reactors (360)

            9.16.    Indian Reactors (361)

            9.17.    Nuclear Fusion (365)

            9.18.    The Plasma (366)

            9.19.    Fusion Reactions in the Plasma (366)

            9.20.    Conditions for maintained Fusion Reactions (367)

            9.21.    Stellar Energy (369)

Exercises (372)

 

Chapter 10. Nuclear Instrumentations : Nuclear Accelerations and Detectors

            10.1.      Introduction (376)

            10.2.      Electrostatic Accelerators (376)

            10.3.      Van de Graaff Generator (376)

            10.4.      Cockcroft and Walton Voltage Multiplier (377)

            10.5.      Linear Accelerator (LINAC) (378)

            10.6.      Cyclotron (380)

            10.7.      Synchro Cyclotron (or Frequency Modulated Cyclotron) (384)

            10.8.      Betatron (386)

            10.9.      Principle of Phase Stability (391)

            10.10.    Electron-Synchrotron (394)

            10.11.    Proton Synchrotron (or Bevatron) (396)

            10.12.    Gas Filled Detectors (400)

            10.13.    Ionisation Chamber (401)

            10.14.    Proportional Counter (402)

            10.15.    Geiger Ð Muller Counter (G.M. Counter) (403)

            10.16.    Scintillation Counter (406)

            10.17.    Cerenkov Radiation and Cerenkov Counter (409)

            10.18.    Solid state (Semi-conductor) Radiation Detectors (411)

            10.19.    Cloud Chamber (414)

            10.20.    Bubble chamber (417)

            10.21.    Nuclear Emulsion Techniques (418)

            10.22.    Neutron Detectors (420)

            10.23.    Scaling Circuits (423)

Exercises (423)

 

Chapter 11. Elementary Particle Physics

            11.1.      Introduction (427)

            11.2.      Historical Survey of Elementary Particles (427)

            11.3.      Physics of Neutrons (428)

            11.4.      Production of New Particles in High Energy Reactions (433)

            11.5.      Classification of Elementary Particles (435)

            11.6.      Fundamental Interactions among Particles (439)

            11.7.      Quantum Numbers Specifying States of Particles (440)

            11.8.      Discovery of Antiparticles (444)

            11.9.      Resonances or Resonant Particles (447)

            11.10.    Conservation  Laws in   Production and Decay Processes (449)

            11.11.    Symmetry and Conservation Laws (451)

            11.12.    Special Symmetry Groups SU(2) and SU(3) (453)

            11.13.    Gell-Mann and NeŽman Classification of Elementary

                           Particles (455)

            11.14.    Quark Model (457)

            11.15.    Sub-symmetry (463)

            11.16.    Unification of Fundamental Interactions (464)

Exercises (466)

 

Chapter 12. Cosmic Rays

            12.1.      Cosmic Rays (470)

            12.2.      Primary and Secondary Cosmic Rays (470)

            12.3.      Geomagnetic Effects (471)

            12.4.      Cosmic Ray Showers (473)

            12.5.      Cosmic Ray Stars (474)

            12.6.      Van Allen Belts (474)

            12.7.      Origin of Cosmic Rays (475)

Exercises (476)

 

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